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WORKING SAFELY WITH ANIMALS
Occupational Health and Safety for Staff with Substantial Contact with MACAQUES
| Response to Injury | Infectious Diseases |
NOTE: 1) Due to the serious zoonotic potential of Herpes B-virus, all macaque users (Macaca fasicularis/cynomolgus monkeys, Macaca mulatta/rhesus monkeys) must attend a first aid workshop prior to working with these animals.

2) All personnel working with non-human primates MUST have proof of annual TB testing.

LARC RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INVESTIGATOR PERSONNEL WHEN WORKING AROUND OR HANDLING MACAQUE MONKEYS

1) PROTECTIVE CLOTHING APPROPRIATE FOR ENTERING OLD WORLD PRIMATE HOUSING ROOMS

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING THAT MUST BE PUT ON BEFORE ENTERING PRIMATE ROOM

  • Disposable head bonnet
  • Disposable or UCSF-laundered moisture resistant gown or labcoat
  • Disposable moisture resistant shoe covers
  • Moisture-proof gloves (Equipment handlers may also be required to wear leather or fabric protective overgloves)
  • Face mask with goggles containing peripheral protection or
  • Faceshield with chinguard

THE ABOVE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IS TO BE REMOVED AND DISPOSED OF IN THE ROOM BEFORE EXITING.

IF A MONKEY IS BEING TRANPSORTED OUTSIDE OF THE ANIMAL HOUSING AREA, THEN PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IS TO BE CHANGED IMMEDIATELY OUTSIDE OF THE ANIMAL ROOM IN PREPARATION FOR ENTERING A PUBLIC HALLWAY e.g., ANY AREA THAT IS OUTSIDE OF THE LOCKED ANIMAL FACILITY. THIS PROTECTIVE CLOTHING SHOULD REMAIN ON WHILE WORKING WITH OR AROUND THE ANIMAL.

2) PROTECTIVE CLOTHING APPROPRIATE FOR LABORATORY PROCEDURES AND ACUTE & SURVIVAL SURGERIES (INCLUDES EUTHANASIA & PERFUSION PROCEDURES)

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING THAT MUST BE WORN BEFORE ENTERING SURGICAL AREA*

  • Surgical scrub suit**
  • Disposable head bonnet
  • Disposable or UCSF-laundered moisture resistant gown or labcoat
  • Moisture resistant shoe covers
  • Disposable Gloves***
  • Surgical mask and goggles containing peripheral vision protection or
  • Faceshield with chinguard

*ALL PERSONNEL OBSERVING SURGICAL EXPERIMENTS MUST WEAR FULL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING - RESTRICT OBSERVERS TO NECESSARY PERSONNEL.
  **IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT DISPOSABLE SURGICAL DRAPES AND SURGICAL TOWELS ARE USED, OR ALL SOILED CLOTH MATERIAL MUST BE SENT OUT TO the UCSF laundry SERVICE FOR LAUNDERING. Soiled Lab coats and suits should be placed in the laundry receptacles; ITEMS TO BE TREATED BY COMMERCIAL LAUNDERING SERVICE ARE HANDLED AS BSL II CONTAMINATED ARTICLES.
    *** DOUBLE GLOVING IS REQUIRED FOR PERSONNEL PERFORMING ANY PROCEDURAL OR SURGICAL MANIPULATIONS.

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RESPONSE TO INJURY

Any potential exposure to macaque blood/saliva/urine/feces/tissue is considered an injury and must be treated as follows. This includes cuts or scratches from a cage inside a macaque room, needle sticks, bites, splashes, etc. IF IN DOUBT,TREAT IT AS AN EXPOSURE.

"Bite/Scratch" emergency kits are located outside all rooms housing macaques. Staff must be familiar with the location of the kits. All are square white medical cabinets with bright orange signs that say "Monkey Bite Scratch Emergency Kit"; dimensions are approximately 20" x 20".

Site Area Location
Animal Tower 2nd Floor/Washroom On left wall of clean side
Animal Tower 5th Floor Primate Area In hallway between animal rooms
Animal Tower 8th Floor Primate Area In hallway between animal rooms
Animal Tower Room 991 Anteroom On back wall of anteroom
MR II Room 314/Research Support Laboratory Near front door under exit sign, by fire extinguisher and light switch
MR II Room 511 Outside of room to left of door (on wall)

  1. SCRUB OR IRRIGATE WOUND IMMEDIATELY with a mixture of soap and irrigation solution. You must do this within 23 MINUTES of exposure. Since the B-virus may enter the body within MINUTES of exposure, this is the only way to keep it from entering the wound and becoming an infection.


  2. SCRUB OR IRRIGATE the wound for 15 to 20 MINUTES.
    • For exposures of the EYES, NOSE, MUCOUS MEMBRANES: irrigate with the sterile eye solution in first aid kit immediately and then find an eye wash station to continue rinsing your eyes for 15 to 20 minutes. NEVER use a bleach solution in your eyes;
    • For BITES, LACERATIONS OR NEEDLESTICKS: Soak and scrub the wound with the soap mixture. Deep wounds can be gently massaged to increase contact with the mixture. Keep scrubbing for 15 to 20 minutes;
    • Wash all of the soap mixture out of the wound after you are done scrubbing.


  3. After scrubbing, CALL THE EXPOSURE HOTLINE 415-353-7842. Your call will be answered by a live operator who will connect you with the Exposure Hotline clinician to assess your injury.


  4. Bring the bag labeled EMPLOYEE HEALTH / EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT from the first aid kit with you. This should include sterile swabs, culture and serum tubes, a protocol for further evaluation, a Signs and Symptoms of Infection sheet and form from Georgia State University Viral Immunology Center.


  5. Notify a veterinarian: Call 502-8687, then press 1 to receive the pager number for the on-call veterinarian.

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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Cercopithicine herpesvirus 1 (CHV1, Herpesvirus simiae, monkey B virus). This disease is quite rare in people but is either fatal or causes permanent neurological disease. Most macaques are asymptomatic carriers or display only mild oral lesions that are difficult to detect. Therefore, all macaques should be presumed to be shedding B-virus.

  • Reservoir/source of infection to people. Macaques are the major source of infection; although other old world primates may be infected;
  • Transmission: Transmission occurs via bites, scratches, splashes (any body fluid or secretion, feces) needlesticks and any direct contact with macaque tissue;
  • Disease in people: The disease in people is associated with a rapidly ascending encephalomyelitis leading to death in 50% of the cases. Permanent neurological deficits are present in survivors.